The name "Linux" comes from the name of the manufacturer, which was introduced in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The system's utilities and libraries usually come from the GNU operating system, which was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. GNU contribution is the basis of the emergence of an alternative name GNU / Linux. (Source: wikipedia)
so Linux OS or Linux operating system was first developed by a named Linux Torvarld, Linux itself is open source so it should be developed by all people freely. Today has been very much at all derivatives of these operating systems include: Debian, Suse, Red Hat, Ubuntu and others. Many people like this because the operating system is free and very secure against viruses.
The Penguins bearing the operating system in addition to free also licensed under GNU wherein the Linux source code can be modified, used freely distributed or even longer. Linux OS which is better known as a Linux distribution or Linux distributions usually included a variety of software such as web servers, databases, programming languages, display desktop (desktop environment), including GNOME, KDE and Xfce.
Excess or Linux advantages:
1. Linux is open source, open and free so as to get it does not cost (LICENCE FREE).
2. Now that Linux is easy to operate. Even now layman too many have used different first linux users synonymous with the hackers.
3. It is superior in terms of safety because Linux is a multiuser operating system so that if a virus attacks a particular user, it will be very difficult to spread to other users so that more secure from virus attacks, security systems better than windows
4. Advantages of Linux OS is to have a graphical interface (GUI) such other modern operating systems. In the graphic interface called the X-Window System, in contrast to the X-Windows. The interface also comes in a choice view that is quite varied and dynamic.
5. In Linux there is always a warning when the computer asks Reboot (restart again) shortly after the installation of the program.
6. Almost all the usual applications run on Windows, Linux root apps already developed by the Linux community, or can also use a software emulator.
7. Linux requires a smaller resource when compared to Windows so it is suitable for the PC that has the minimum specification. so Excess Linux OS Another helpful resource is the need for smaller when compared with the Windows operating system. This makes Linux is compatible for use on a PC with minimal specifications.
8. Linux users do not have to buy expensive hardware for Linux can run on a PC with minimal configuration: 386 DX microprocessor either Intel, AMD Cryix and others, 4 MB RAM and hard drive which only requires 85 MB of space.
9. Linux is capable of running in two modes and virtual presence memory / SWAP which makes Linux has the ability to run large programs.
10. Linux is more stable so rarely crashes or hangs jamming which requires us to restart the computer.
11. Do not think that Linux is a single operating system. Just like other operating systems, there are a variety of options that include Ubuntu Linux, Debian, Fedora, CentOS, RedHat, openSUSE, Mandriva, and others. But Ubuntu, Mint and Fedora is the type most popular Linux OS used.
12. There are many communities in cyberspace so for beginner Linux users do not need kahwatir when experiencing problems. In the community, its members known to be loyal and willing to help each other solve problems or just give tips & Having communities in various parts of the world.
13. You do not need to worry about the presence of pirated software raid at the airport that mainly on laptops because Linux is a free operating system.
14. Linux can interact with other operating systems and stability, Linux is more stable than windows.
15. Linux can support up to 33 kinds of access to the file systems of different types, such as the file system FAT16, FAT32 (DOS), HPFS (OS / 2), VFAT (Win), Minix, UFS (Solaris), SCO, Xenix, Novell, and others.
16. Linux is no restriction on how the content is used in the system. That is, there is no digital rights management (DRM) slowing down the computer and the things that cause conflicts with hardware and software.
17. There are a variety of important programs and types of networking applications already available in the distributions (whether in the form of a CD or diskette). It is quite easy for users that do not need to bother looking for additional applications.
18. Using Linux also could mean you helped reduce software piracy in particular is the operating system.
Deficiency or weakness Linux
1. The Linux operating system is difficult to learn, especially who do not have computer capabilities at all even though now Linux is easier than with the former.
2. There are many applications that support Linux
3. Users are many who are not accustomed to using linux because they are more accustomed to make use of windows.
4. Support hardware from certain vendors were not too good on linux. If you want to see the lists of hardware supported by Linux please visits www.linux-drivers.org or www.linuxhardware.org/.
5. Installing Linux is not as easy as installation of windows.
6. Program / Application in linux not as efficacious as windows application.
7. For system administrators need to learn first because not familiar with Unix-like ,.
8. The structure of directories and permissions are confusing for users who are accustomed to using Windows.
Maybe it's a little on the Linux OS, each OS must have advantages and disadvantages of each, sorry if there are mistakes or dissent. thank you.